Maulyani Djadjadilaga, dkk

From Data to Policy (Ciliwung River Water Quality Management)

Oleh: Maulyani Djadjadilaga, Hermono Sigit, Aksa Tejalaksana

The State Ministry of Environment To The Republic of Indonesia
aksa@menlh.go.id, maulyani@menlh.go.id, Fax & Phone +62 21 8580081

Download file: paper22 

Abstract

Ciliwung River is the main river that flows from the District of Bogor, passing through the cities of Bogor, Depok, Until Jakarta. The pollution from various sources; industries, households and the usage of land area in the upstream area of the riverbed have poured copious amount of waste and pollution, which has risen in level, into the river every year.

This research done on the Pollution of the Ciliwung River is due to the necessity in locating the amount of pollution that have been wasted into the length of the Ciliwung River, alongside the sources for said pollution. Identifying the sources of the pollution alongside the amount of pollution that is being generated by the sources is important in the attempt to control the effects of the pollution from the upstream area all the way to the downstream area.

The results of this research is also hoped to be use in giving consideration in creating a policy to determine and regulate the types and quality of water that can be safely used, and will be applied by the local government and the people.

Keywords: Ciliwung River, Data, & water quality

Introduction

The Ciliwung River Basin with an area encompassing 347km2 starting upstream at Tugu Puncak, Bogor Province until downstream at the Jakarta Bay area which acts as the River Basins outlet. The growing development at the River Basins, from the upstream area until the downstream area is extremely rapid due to the increasing rate of population caused by the high developments in the JABODETABEK (Jakarta, Bogor, Tanggerang and Bekasi City) area.

The development that is being done inside the Ciliwung River Basin area causes the decrease of the lands capability in absorbing water, and thus lowering the surface protection of the land from erosions, which in the end causes the rate of runoff and erosions. The floods in Jakarta, the decrease of river water quality, landslides and droughts happens to be an indicator of failure in managing natural resources for the population.

On the other hand, the usages of water resources from the Ciliwung River have not yet reach an optimum level. For example, the clean water usage in DKI Jakarta reaches 413 million cubic meters a year, but the clean water supply from the District Water Utility DKI Jakarta’s reservoirs is limited at 200 million cubic meters each year. In short, the rest of the 213 million cubic meters of clean water needed by DKI Jakarta is dependent on underground water reservoirs. Based on a yearly debit count, the water resources from the Ciliwung River, to be exact 500 million cubic meters of water each year, is wasted to the ocean. The same also happens to the Grogol, Pebauran and Pesanggerahan Stream that posses the combined potential of 300 million cubic meters a year. To sum it up, over 800 million cubic meters worth of water resources that is wasted to the ocean.

The other problem is the change of land development happening around the River Basins Area. The change in land development around the River Basin Area during the last three decades happens very rapidly, the conversion from the land full of vegetations into housing and tall buildings increased without control. The results are the decreasing quality of support from the ecosystem thus creating critical lands, the decrease in land fertility and water quality, drought during the dry season and floods during the wet season. Seen from the amount of flow rate, evapotranspiration and infiltration alongside the debit fluctuation index, planting vegetations in open lands like bush fields, meadows, and unused land, are the most viable and effective choice to defend the hydrology functions of the River Basins.

The Capacity Limit of Pollution in The Ciliwung River

The entire length of the Ciliwung River from upstream until downstream reaches 89 kilometers. Flowing through a District two Cities and one Province, which are; The District of Bogor, The City of Bogor, The City of Depok, and the Province of DKI Jakarta.

Based on the monitoring data results during the year 2004-2006 on 14 locations, the BOD and COD parameters tend to rise the closer it gets downstream.

The rise of BOD and COD concentration in the Ciliwung river is caused by the introduction of liquid waste from the District of Bogor, The City of Bogor, The City of Depok, and the Province of DKI Jakarta. The estimated total weight of the BOD and COD that entered the Ciliwung River are, each, 33.8 ton an hour and 73.8 ton an hour. The estimated weight distribution of the BOD and COD is based on segments (administrative areas) can be seen on the table below.

The estimated location of the waste sources and other sources that enters the Ciliwung River can be seen at the table below.

Pollution Assimilated Capacity

Assuming, or targeting that Ciliwung River’s segment 1 is class I, segments 2, 3 and 4 are class II, and segment 5 is class III, so the BOD and COD pollution carrying capacity parameters for each segment are as it follows:

With the Carrying Capacity showed on table 3, the water quality for the Ciliwung River’s BOD and COD parameters can be seen on Image 4 and Image 5.

 

Parameters decreased by, each, 79% and 50% with the decreasing levels distribution as follows:

 

The entire scope of the rivers pollution can be taken care of all at once from upstream until downstream, from all the source of pollutions. In the stages done to reach the desired quality of water, the measures taken to achieve this can be done with a variety of combinations and decreasing the pollution weight limit from the sources. Scenarios in the attempt of recovering Water Quality based on the results of Dynamic System Analysis (Data Attributes). The results of the Dynamic System Analysis for each scenario are assumed to be a water recovery process that is done by using an incinerator, liquid waste disposal and handling, husbandry waste handling, market waste decomposition and household waste handling.

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