Yasuto Tachikawa

Kali Ciliwung 

Edited by: Yasuto Tachikawa, Ross James, Keizrul Abdullah
and Mohd. Nor bin Mohd. Desa 


Sumber: http://flood.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/ 

Map of River

Table of Basic Data

1. General Description

Ciliwung river is 97 km long, has a catchment area of 476 km2, and is located in the western region of Java where it flows through two provinces, West Java and the special region of Jakarta. The Ciliwung river has its source at Mt. Mandala Wangi in Kabupaten Bogor with the highest peak at 3,002 m The river flows in a northern direction passing several active volcanoes, Mt. Salak (2,211 m), Mt. Kendeng (1,364 m), and Mt. Halimun (1,929 m), crosses two main cities Bogor and Jakarta before finally flowing into the Java Sea. The main tributaries are located in the upper catchment and are the Ciesek and Ciluar with respective lengths 9.7 km and 21.0 km and catchment areas of 27.15 km2 and 35.25 km2.

The Ciliwung basin is a narrow and elongated shape of which 17.2 km upstream has a very steep slope (0.08), 25.4 km in the middle reach has a slope of 0.01 and the downstream, 55 km has a flat slope of 0.0018. In general the geology of the Ciliwung river basin is dominated by Tuffaceous Breccia and older deposits lahar and lava in the upstream area. The middle reach consists mainly of alluvial fans from quartenary and volcanics rocks, and the downstream area is dominated by alluvial and beach ridge deposits. Mean rainfall reaches 3,125 mm, with mean annual discharge of 16 m3/sec. as measured at Ciliwung Ratujaya observation station (231 km2). With such topographical, geological and hydrological features the Ciliwung river is often overflowing and inundating parts of Jakarta city. The population along the Ciliwung river basin reaches 4.088 million (Census 2000) and can be regarded as the most densely populated area.

2. Geographical Information

2.1 Geological Map

2.2 Land Use Map


2.3 Characteristics of River and Main Tributaries

2.4. Longitudinal Frofiles


3. Climatological Information

3.1 Annual Isohyetal Map and Observation Stations

3.2 List of Meteorological Observation Stations


3.3 Monthly Climate Data


3.4 Long-term Variation of Monthly Rainfall Series

4. Hydrological Information

4.1 Map of Streamflow Observation Stations

 4.2 List of Hydrological Observation Stations


4.3 Long-term Variation of Monthly Discharge Series

4.4 Annual Pattern of Discharge

4.5 Unique Hydrological Features

As explained in the general description, the Ciliwung river basin has a long and narrow shape with steep slopes in the upstream and middle reaches. Rainfall is very high and the recharge area is very small because of the densly populated and settled areas downstream. The relatively short duration of rainfall in the upper areas of the river basin and local inflows downstream cause floods and inundation of the Jakarta area. This condition is aggravated when floods occur during a full moon when the ocean tides are highest. To avoid inundation of the city area, a flood channel to direct flows to the west is being built and called “Banjir Kanal Barat”.

4.6 Annual Maximum and Minimum Discharge at Sugutamu (266.6 km2)

4.7 Hyetographs and Hydrographs of Major Floods

5. Water Resources

5.1 General Description

The Ciliwung river basin with an area of 476 km2 covers only a very small percentage (0.363 %) of the entire Java region which is about 130,777 km2. Yet, because this river flows through the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia and often causes floods, special attention is given to flood control measures. Water resources of this river are used for agriculture activities upstream (water taken from Katulampa dam), drinking water (a small amount), sanitation and water flushing. The barrage at Manggarai, located in the center of Jakarta, controls the water flow by directing it into the Banjir Kanal Barat and thus preventing floods during the rainy season. In the dry season water supply is only sufficient for sanitation and flushing purposes. Use of river water for agricultural purposes occurs mainly upstream from a fixed weir at Katulampa.

5.2 Map of Water Resources System


5.3 List of Major Water Resources Facilities

Major Major Diversions and Canals


5.4 Water Quality

River Water Quality at Ciliwung-Katulampa in 2003

6. Socio-cultural Characteristics

The Ciliwung River flows through two provinces, West Java and the Special Region of Jakarta. Two main races dominate the region namely, the Sundanese (West Java) and Orang Betawi (Jakarta), therefore socio cultural characteristics differ from one area to the other.

In the Bogor area (Upper Ciliwung River) in the past were found two famous ancient kingdoms; Tarumanegara (4th-5th Century) with its great King Purnawarman and Padjajaran (15th-16th Century) with its King Sri Baduga. The existence of these Kingdoms is found from ancient inscriptions at Ciaruteun (Tarumanagara) and Batutulis (Padjajaran).

Culture in the Bogor area is mainly Sundanese, such as can be observed from traditional dances, the Ketuk Tilu or the Jaipongan which is modern, sensual and full of spirit. Specific Sundanese music can be observed from the Degung, Calung, Angklung and Kecapi Suling.

The upper part of the Ciliwung in the Jakarta region was once famous for a kingdom (Banten) with Pangeran Jayakarta as King. The Yapong is a favourite dance in the area and Gambang Kromong as well as Kroncong music can still be found at Tugu, north of Jakarta. Also famous is a humorous play, the Lenong, using a special Betawi dialect.

7. References, Data-books and Bibliography

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2001. Statistik Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia. Jakarta

INDEC & Associates Limited in Associated LAVALIN International Inc and NIPPON Koei Co., Ltd. May 1986. Vol. 1 Main Report. Cisadane River Basin Development Feasibility Study.

Nikken Consultants, Inc in Association with Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.1996. The Study on Comprehensive River Water Management Plan in Jabotabek.

PT. Mettana.1998. Studi Potensi SDA dan Pemanfaatannya. Laporan Akhir. Proyek PKSA-CC.

One Comment on “Yasuto Tachikawa”

  1. birulangit04 Says:

    Datanya lengkap & sangat bermanfaat.. saya izin download untuk bahan kuliah. Terimakasih.

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